Electromagnetic Fields

Electromagnetic Fields
3 YEAR1 semester6 CREDITS
Prof. Cecilia Occhiuzzi2019-20
Code: 8039513

This course aims to provide the basic principles and models for the representation of electromagnetic transmission and propagation phenomena up to the description of the most common classes of guiding / radiating elements and of the entire wireless communication link.

Students will have understood the principles and the mathematical representation of transmission, irradiation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic waves. At the end of the course the student: – will know the basic methodologies of problem analysis described by the Maxwell Equations; – will know the solution of Maxwell’s equations in terms of plane waves and the propagation, reflection and refraction modes of the latter; – will know the behavior of transmission lines and will be able to use the Smith diagram; he will know the basic guiding structures and the relative modalities he will be able to characterize the irradiated field at great distance from electromagnetic sources; – will know the descriptive quantities of the behavior of the antennas both in transmission and in reception; –

Students will be able to interpret the most common phenomena of electromagnetic propagation in free space and in material means. They will be able to understand qualitatively and quantitatively the phenomena and the peculiar characteristics of radiant and basic guiding structures. Thanks to the use of basic CAD and Matlab type calculation software they will be able to directly analyze the different phenomena covered by the course.

Students will acquire the ability to integrate the knowledge provided with those found autonomously by accessing the scientific literature / datasheet of components. The autonomous and guided development of exercises (also in Matlab / CAD electromagnetic base) will complete the training.

Students will be able to illustrate in a synthetic and analytical way all the topics of the course using equations and schemes. They will communicate quantitatively the resolution of exercises and complex problems, also through basic electromagnetic Matlab / CAD.

Students will have acquired the ability to read and understand scientific texts and datasheets in English for further information on the topics covered by the course and for the resolution of the exercises.


1.Review of vector analysis and complex Algebra
2.Transmission lines: theory and techniques
3. Electrodynamics and Time varying fields.
4.Plane waves.
5.Guided waves.
6. Radiation and antennas.


1.Fields , field operators and Phasors.
Review of vector analysis.
Scalar and vector fields.
Line and surface integrals.
Differential operators: Gradient, Divergence, Curl, Laplacian.
Complex Algebra and Phasor.

2.Transmission lines.
The Lumped-Circuit theory.
Sinusoidal waves on the ideal lossless line.
Characteristic impedance. Power transmitted by a single wave.
Reflection and transmission.
Transmission lines with losses.
Standing wave ratio.
The Smith chart.
Impedance matching techniques.
Practical transmission lines.

3. Electrodynamics and Time varying fields.
Displacement current. The continuity equation.
Faraday’s law.
Boundary conditions for the tangential electric field.
Maxwell’s equations.
Sinusoidal fields.
The skin effect.
Boundary conditions for good conductors.
Electromagnetic waves. The uniform plane wave.
The quasi-static approximation.

4. Plane waves.
Characteristics of plane waves. Polarization of plane waves.
Poynting’s theorem.
Reflection and transmission at normal incidence.
Reflection and transmission at oblique incidence.
Plane waves in lossy media.

5.Guided waves.
TEM waves in transmission lines.
Hollow metal waveguides. TE waves. The TE10 mode. Waveguide losses.
Cavity resonator

6. Radiation and antennas.
Sources of radiation.
Far field parameters
Near field parameters
The elementary dipole. Directivity and gain.
Array basic

High Performance Electronics

High Performance Electronics
3 YEAR1 semester6 CREDITS
Prof. Giancarlo Bartolucci2019-20
Code: 8037963

Educational objectives

LEARNING OUTCOMES: the main purpose is to provide methods of analysis and design for high frequency components and circuits.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: the student should be able to understand and know the methods of analysis and design studied in the course.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: the student should be able to apply the models of the studied components to the design of high-frequency circuits.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS: in the mathematical model of a component, the student should be able to find by himself the basic assumptions and the corresponding introduced physical approximations.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS: the student should be able to discuss the topics studied in the course with mathematical rigor and using the proper terms.

LEARNING SKILLS: if necessary, the student should be able to significantly and autonomously increase his knowledge of the topics analyzed in the course.


The analysis methods of the lumped element networks. The most common devices and circuits used in the low frequency analogue electronics. The theory of transmission lines.


  1. Introduction

2.Scattering parameters.
Definition in the general case. The lossless case. The two-port network case.

3.Two-port networks.
The ABCD matrix and its properties for the representation of two-port networks. The relationships between the ABCD parameters and the scattering parameters.

  1. Planar realization of lines.
    The microstrip line. The coplanar line. The most widely used discontinuities
    for these two structures.
  2. Realization of microwave integrated circuits.
    The hybrid integrated circuit configuration. The monolithic integrated circuit configuration.
  3. Three-port networks.
    The general theorem for the three-port networks. The Wilkinson divider.
  4. Four-port networks.
    The branch-line divider. The rat-race divider. The coupled-line structure.
  5. Microwave amplifiers.
    Some linear amplifiers: the balanced configuration and the distributed configuration. The non linear effects in power amplifiers, and their memoryless modeling.
  6. Switches.
    The p-i-n diode and the microelectromechanical switches. The single pole single throw (SPST) switch and the single pole double throw (SPDT) switch.
  7. Phase shifters.
    The switched-line configuration. The reflection phase shifter. The loaded line topology. The distributed configuration.


David Pozar, “Microwave Engineering”, Wiley.
S.K.Koul and B.Bhat, “Microwave and Millimetre-wave Phase Shifters vol II”, Artech House 1991.

Machine Design

Machine Design
3 YEAR2 semester9 CREDITS
Prof. Luciano Cantone2019-20
Code: 8037969


LEARNING OUTCOMES: Designing mechanical components considering the need to save weight, material and energy while respecting safety, to promote the usefulness and social impact of the designed product.
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: The design of mechanical systems; in particular, basic knowledge of the design methodologies of important machine components.
APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: Knowing how to recognise, distinguish and use the main techniques and tools for the design of mechanical components.
MAKING JUDGEMENTS: Students must assume the missing data of a problem and be able to independently formulate basic hypotheses (such as that on safety coefficients) based on the operational and functional context of the system/component they have to design.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS: Transfer information, ideas and solutions to specialist and non-specialist interlocutors through intensive use of English terminology.
LEARNING SKILLS: Students, by learning the basics of design, acquire the tools to learn the necessary design techniques of systems/components not directly addressed during the course.


The first part of the course is addressed to the consolidation of basic knowledge to put the student in the right conditions to face a generic machine design problem: Mechanical Engineering design in Broad, Perspective, Load Analysis, Materials, Static Body Stresses, Elastic strain, Deflection, Stability (Eulerian buckling), Vibrations (beam Eigen-modes), Failure Theories, Safety Factors, Reliability, High cycles Fatigue, Low cycles Fatigue, Surface Damage, Contact and impact problems.

The second part will cover specific design activities: Threaded Fasteners and Power Screws, Rivets, Welding, Bonding, Springs, Lubrication and Sliding Bearings, Rolling-Element Bearings, Spur and Helical Gears, Shafts and Associated Parts. During the course, several design activities will be demonstrated by exercises and by real-life applications.

Energy Systems

Energy Systems
3 YEAR1 semester6 CREDITS
Prof. Michele Manno2019-20
Code: 8037964


After completing the course, the students should acquire a good knowledge of the fundamental operating principles of energy conversion systems, and they should be able to analyze the layout and evaluate the performance and efficiency of thermal and hydroelectric power plants.

Students are expected to understand the fundamental principles underlying the operation of energy conversion systems.

Students are expected to be able to assess the performance of energy conversion systems.

Students are expected to be able to choose the most suitable energy conversion system and its operating parameters, given a particular application.

Students are expected to be able to describe and illustrate the operating principles of energy conversion systems.

Students are expected to be able to read and fully understand technical literature related to energy conversion systems.


Students will be introduced to the main principles of energy conversion systems, with particular reference to steam and gas turbine power plants, combined cycle power plants,
hydroelectric power generation.

More specifically, the following topics will be addressed:


  • Review of fluid properties and equations of state.
  • Analysis of combustion processes.
  • Analysis of energy conversion systems based on 1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics.
  • Thermodynamic cycles: definition of network output and thermal efficiency; external and internal irreversibilities; efficiency factors.

Steam power plants

  • Analysis of ideal and real thermodynamic cycles.
  • Choice of operating parameters.
  • Techniques to improve plant efficiency: steam reheating, regenerative feed heating.
  • Plant layouts, applications.

Gas turbine power plants

  • Analysis of ideal and real thermodynamic cycles.
  • Choice of operating parameters and techniques to improve performance: regenerative heat exchanger, reheaters, intercoolers.
  • Layout of heavy-duty and aeroderivative turbines, applications.

Combined cycle power plants

  • Analysis of “topping” (gas turbine) and “bottoming” sections, definition of recovery efficiency.
  • Thermodynamic optimization of bottoming sections with variable temperature heat input.
  • Plant layout, applications.

Hydroelectric power generation

  • Hydraulic turbines: classification, operating parameters, performance characteristics.
  • Hydroelectric plant classification and layouts, applications.

Fluid Machinery

Fluid Machinery
3 YEAR1 semester6 CREDITS
Prof. Vincenzo Mulone e
Roberto Verzicco
Code: 8037967

LEARNING OUTCOMES: This course aims at providing the fundamentals of fluid dynamics applied to fluid machines. More in detail, it deals with the fluid dynamics equations applied to energy-consuming and energy-producing machines, characterized by both axial and radial flows. It also deals with the understanding of systems connected to fluid machines.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: The student will be able to develop simple but useful calculations of fluid machines in terms of flow, work and power, along with solving practical problems of interest. The student will also learn the basics of the control of fluid machines with respect to the flow rate, work exchanged and power output or input The knowledge developed will help the student for both the design of fluid machines and of the systems connected to the machines.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: The student will apply the knowledge and understanding developed to the analysis of practical problems. This would imply critical knowledge in terms of size and power output/input; the same thing will be done for the systems connected to the machine.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS: The student will have to prove his critical awareness with respect to the simplifying assumptions useful to describe and calculate fluid machines, as well as his critical awareness of the correct order of magnitude of performance parameters while dealing or designing fluid machines.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS: The student will prove, mostly during the oral test, his capacity of describing the operation and functioning of fluid machines, convening of the knowledge developed.

LEARNING SKILLS: The student will get familiar with the schematization of practical problems, mostly during the development of his skills for the written test. This mainly concerns fluid machines (e.g. wind turbines, steam turbines, hydraulic turbines, hydraulic pumps, gas compressors, etc) and the systems connected to the machines (e.g. hydraulic power plants, pumping systems, air distribution systems, etc).



Classification of machines. Turbines, compressors, volumetric, rotary machines and their applications to industrial practical cases. Analysis of performance: power, specific work, efficiency.

Basics of fluid mechanics 

Material and spatial description of the flow field. Translation, deformation and rotation. Reynolds’ transport theorem. Principles of conservation and balance (mass, momentum, energy, entropy) in differential form. Mass, momentum, thermal and mechanical energy in stationary and rotating frames of reference. 

Basics of fluid mechanics applied to turbomachinery 

Integral balances in turbomachines (mass, momentum, moment of momentum, energy) and basic applications. 
Gas dynamics equations, speed of sound, Mach number. Applications to nozzles in supersonic conditions, normal shock waves. 

Velocity diagrams coupled to stator and rotor blades for energy producing and consuming machines. Moment of Momentum balance. Energy transfer and different expressions of the Euler work. Trothalpy, degree of reaction, utilization for a turbine. 


Scaling and similitude: dimensionless parameters, specific speed and diameter, Cordier curve. Scaling and similitude for compressible flow machines. 

Axial turbines: stage analysis, flow and loading coefficients, reaction ratio, special cases of 0 and 0.5 reaction ratio designs. Off-design operation and performance maps. 

Axial compressors: stage analysis, flow and loading coefficients, reaction ratio. De Haller design criterion and its effect on blade design. Off-design operation and performance maps. 

Centrifugal compressors: analysis of velocity diagrams, effect of blade shape on performance maps, stability and efficiency. Slip factor. Vaneless and vaned diffuser. Flow control (variable speed, IGV and throttling). 

Centrifugal pumps operation into systems: definition of head and volumetric flow rate. Head-flow rate performance map and effects on velocity diagrams, blade design and efficiency. System head curves for simple and multi-branched open-ended and closed-circuit systems. Friction factor and expression of dimensional friction losses. Flow control by variable speed and throttling.  

Cavitation: physical description; effects of system design on cavitation, Net Positive Suction Head, suction specific speed.


S. Korpela. Principles of Turbomachinery, Wiley 2019. 

Karassik et al., Pump handbook, McGraw Hill. 

Powerpoint slides and videos are available on the MS-team website. 

Kinematics and Dynamics of Mechanisms

Kinematics and Dynamics of Mechanisms
3 YEAR1 semester9 CREDITS
Prof. Marco Ceccarelli2019-20
Code: 8037957


LEARNING OUTCOMES: The course aims to teach students the knowledge and tools that are needed to address the issues that are related to the identification, modeling, analysis, design of multi-body planar systems, and in particular some transmission organs in English language and terminology

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: modeling and procedures to recognize the structure and characteristics of mechanisms and machines

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: acquisition of analysis procedures for the understanding of kinematic and dynamic characteristics of mechanisms and machines

MAKING JUDGEMENTS: possibility of judging the functionality of mechanisms and machines with their own qualitative and quantitative assessments

COMMUNICATION SKILLS: learning of technical terminology and procedures for presenting the performance of mechanisms

LEARNING SKILLS: learning of technical terminology and procedures for the presentation of the performance of mechanisms


  • Structure and classification of planar mechanical systems, kinematic modeling, mobility analysis, graphical approaches of kinematics analysis, kinematic analysis with computer-oriented algorithms, fundamentals of mechanism synthesis, trajectory generation; dynamics and statics modeling, graphical approaches of dynamics analysis, dynamic analysis with computer-oriented algorithms, performance evaluation; elements of mechanical transmissions with gears, belts, brakes, and flywheels.

Digital Electronics

Digital Electronics
3 YEAR1 semester9 CREDITS
Prof. Marco Re2019-20
RE MARCO 2020-21
Code: 8037956



This course aims at providing the fundamentals of DIGITAL ELECTRONICS. More in detail, it deals with the characterization and design of combinational circuits starting from gates. The target technology is CMOS. Starting from the study of the CMOS circuits and the implementation of memory cells the course will face the design and characterization of sequential circuits.


The student will be able to analyze and design combinational and sequential circuits.
Starting from these blocks the student will be able to write a high-level description of a complex digital system based on a computational unit and a control unit.


The student will apply the knowledge and understanding developed to the analysis of practical problems. This would imply critical knowledge in terms of silicon real estate and speed for both combinational and sequential systems.
MAKING JUDGEMENTS: The student will have to prove his critical awareness with respect to the simplifying assumptions useful to describe and analyze combinational and sequential systems as well as his critical awareness of the correct order of magnitude of performance parameters while dealing or designing digital circuits.


The student will prove, mostly during the oral test, his capacity of describing the operation and functioning of digital systems.


The student will get familiar with the schematization of practical problems, mostly during the development of his skills for the written test. This mainly concerns combinational systems and sequential systems


  • This course constitutes an introduction to the engineering of digital systems.
  • Starting with data representation in digital form, it goes on to provide students with the ability to design a circuit for a given algorithmic information processing task. For this purpose, Boolean functions and combinational design are covered, followed by sequential logic design through Finite State Machines. Moreover standard MSI blocks (sequential and combinational are illustrated) up the description of algorithmic state machines.
  • The student should be able to understand the structure of a complex digital system and able to design the architecture and the internal blocks of the system. In the course, a brief introduction to the electrical measurements for digital systems is given (oscilloscope, Logic State Analyzer, Pattern Generator).

Physics II

Physics II
2 YEAR1 semester9 CREDITS
Prof. Vittorio Foglietti2019-20
Code: 8037952


LEARNING OUTCOMES: Learning the basic elements of Electromagnetism and fundamental physical principles of quantum mechanics.

Knowledge of the basic principles of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics useful for the own field of study. Understanding of advanced books on the arguments treated during the course.

Capacity to develop autonomously basic conceptual ideas using arguments treated during the course.

Capacity to evaluate autonomously ideas or project using the knowledge acquired in the course.

Capacity to share informations and ideas on the basis of knwoledge acquired in the course.
Comprehension of specific problems and relative solutions proposed.

The knowledge acquired in the course must be of help for the student in future courses, improving the capacity of autonomous learning.


1) Electric Charge and Electric Field : Conductors, Insulators, and Induced Charges.
Coulomb’s Law. Electric Field and Electric Forces. Electric Field Lines. Charge and Electric Flux, Gauss’’ s Law. Charges on Conductors.
2) Electric Potential: Electric Potential Energy, Electric Potential, Equipotential Surfaces, Potential Gradient. Definition of electric dipole. Approximated formula for the electric potential of a dipole at large distances.
3) Capacitors and Capacitance. Capacitors in series and parallel configuration. Electrostatic Potential Energy of a Capacitor. Polarization in Dielectrics. Induced Dipoles. Alignment of Polar Molecules. Electric Field inside a dielectric material. Relative dielectric constant. Capacitors with dielectric materials.
4) Electric current, Vector current density J, Resistivity (ρ) and conductivity ( σ) of materials, Ohm’s law in vector and scalar form, Resistors and resistance, Microscopic theory of electric transport in metals (Drude model). Differences between thermal velocity and drift velocity of charge carriers. Thermal coefficient of resistivity for metal and semiconductors. Resistors in parallel. Kirchhoff current law and the conservation of charge. Resistors in series. Kirchhoff voltage law ( KVL) and the conservative nature of electric field. Resistor and capacitor in series. Charging a capacitor. Solving the equation for current and voltage in RC circuits, time constant.
5) Introduction to magnetism, historical notes. Magnetic Force on a moving charged particle in a Magnetic Field. Definition of the vector ( cross ) product. Vector product expressed by the formal determinant and calculated by Sarrus Rule. Thomson’s q/m experiment and the discovery of the electron. Magnetic force on a current carrying conductor. Local equation for the magnetic force, the second formula of Laplace. Introduction to current loops, the torque. Force and Torque on a current loop in presence of a constant magnetic field. The magnetic dipole moment. Torque in vector form. Stable and unstable equilibrium states. Equivalence between a magnetic dipole of a current loop and the dipole of a magnet. Potential energy of a dipole moment in a magnetic field. Force exerted on a magnetic dipole in a non-uniform magnetic field. Working principle of a dc motor. Generalization of a magnetic dipole to current loops with irregular area. Magnetic dipole of a coil consisting of n loops in series. The Hall effect.
6) Historical introduction to the Biot Savart Laplace equation. Electric current as sources of magnetic field, the current element. The Biot Savat Laplace (BSL) equation. BSL equation for an infinitely long wire with an electric current flow. The flux of the magnetic field B. The Gauss Law for the magnetic field. Forces acting on wires with electric current flow. Magnetic field on the axis of a current loop and a coil. Ampere Circuital Law. Definition of a Solenoid. Magnetic field from a long cylindrical conductor. Magnetic field from a toroidal coil. The Bohr magneton. Magnetic materials. Paramagnetism, Diamagnetism, Ferromagnetism.
7) Magnetic induction experiments. Faraday Law. Lenz Law. Flux swept by a coil and Motional Electromotive Force. Induced Electric Field. Displacement current. The four Maxwell equations in integral form. Symmetry of the Maxwell equation. Self induction. Inductors. Inductor as circuit element.Self inductance of a coil. Magnetic Field Energy. The R-L circuit. The LC circuit. The RLC series circuit.
8) The electromagnetic waves. Derivation of EM waves from Maxwell Equation. The electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic energy flow and the Poynting vector. Energy in a sinusoidal wave. Electromagnetic momentum flow. Standing Electromagnetic waves.
9) Light waves behaving as particles. The photocurrent experiment. Threshold frequency and Stopping Potential. Einstein’s explanation of Light absorbed as “Photons”. Light Emitted as Photons: X-Ray Production. Light Scattered as Photons: Compton Scattering.
10) Interference and diffraction of waves. The Wave Particle Duality. De Broglie wavelength. The x-ray diffraction from a crystal lattice, the Bragg’s Law. The electron diffraction experiment of Davisson and Germer. The double slit experiment with electrons. Waves in one dimension: Particle Waves, the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation. Physical interpretation of the Wave Function. Wave Packets. Uncertainty principle. Particle in a box. Energy-levels and wave functions for a particle in a box. The tunneling effect.

Mathematical Analysis II

Mathematical Analysis II
2 YEAR1 semester9 CREDITS
Code: 8037950


One learns power series, differential calculus of several variables, line integral, multiple integral and surface and volume integral. One obtains the ability to calculate partial derivatives of elementary and composed functions, calculate various integrals and apply theorems of Green, Gauss and Stokes to facilitate the computations.

To know the definitions of basic conepts (convergence of series, partial derivatives, extremal points, multiple integral, line integal, surface integral and volume integral) and apply various theorems to execute concrete computations.

To identify the theorems and techniques to apply to the given problems and execute computations correctly.

To understand mathematical concepts for the given problems and to divide them into smaller problems that can be solved with the knowledge obtained during the course.

To frame the problems in the obtained concepts, express the logic and general facts that are used during the computations.LEARNING SKILLS:

To know precisely basic mathematical concepts and apply them to some simple examples in physics.


  • Sequences and series of functions, Taylor series
  • Differential calculus of scalar and vector fields
  • Applications of differential calculus, extremal points
  • Basic differential equations
  • Line integrals
  • Multiple integrals
  • Surface integrals, Gauss and Stokes theorems

Electrical Network Analysis

Electrical Network Analysis
2 YEAR1 semester9 CREDITS
Prof. Vincenzo Bonaiuto2019-20
Code: 8037951

Electrical quantities and SI units. Electrical energy and electrical power. Passive and active sign convention. Passive and active elements. Ideal voltage and current sources. Basic ideal electric components: resistance, inductance, capacitance. Models of real components. Ohm-s law. Series and Parallel connection of components. Topological circuital laws: Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) and Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL). Mesh Current Method, Node Voltage Method. Sinusoidal functions: average and RMS (Root Mean Square) values.

Sinusoidal steady state circuit analysis. Phasors. Impedance and admittance. Analysis of circuits in AC steady state. Electrical power in the time domain and in sinusoidal steady state: active power, reactive power, complex power. Power factor correction. Maximum power transfer in AC. Application of superposition theorem in circuit analysis. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems.

Frequency response: first order electrical filters. Resonance: series and parallel resonant circuits.

Mutual inductance and ideal transformer. Three-Phase systems. Introduction to the power distribution and transportation grid. Time response and transient analysis. The unit step function, unit impulse function, exponential function, first-order circuits. Laplace transform method, Laplace transform of some typical functions, initial-value and final-value theorems, partial-fractions expansions, analysis of circuits in the s-domain. Network functions and circuit stability.

Electrical measurement bridges. Introductions to the electrical safety and electricity distribution system: description and prospects. Basics of designing a power plant. Effects of electricity on the human body and relative protection systems. Introduction to electrical machines: Tranformer and DC motor.