## High Performance Electronics – (block B)

Educational objectives

LEARNING OUTCOMES: the main purpose is to provide methods of analysis and design for high frequency components and circuits.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: the student should be able to understand and know the methods of analysis and design studied in the course.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: the student should be able to apply the models of the studied components to the design of high-frequency circuits.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS: in the mathematical model of a component, the student should be able to find by himself the basic assumptions and the corresponding introduced physical approximations.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS: the student should be able to discuss the topics studied in the course with mathematical rigor and using the proper terms.

LEARNING SKILLS: if necessary, the student should be able to significantly and autonomously increase his knowledge of the topics analyzed in the course.

Prerequisites

The analysis methods of the lumped element networks. The most common devices and circuits used in the low frequency analogue electronics. The theory of transmission lines.

Syllabus

1. Introduction

2.Scattering parameters.
Definition in the general case. The lossless case. The two-port network case.

3.Two-port networks.
The ABCD matrix and its properties for the representation of two-port networks. The relationships between the ABCD parameters and the scattering parameters.

1. Planar realization of lines.
The microstrip line. The coplanar line. The most widely used discontinuities
for these two structures.
2. Realization of microwave integrated circuits.
The hybrid integrated circuit configuration. The monolithic integrated circuit configuration.
3. Three-port networks.
The general theorem for the three-port networks. The Wilkinson divider.
4. Four-port networks.
The branch-line divider. The rat-race divider. The coupled-line structure.
5. Microwave amplifiers.
Some linear amplifiers: the balanced configuration and the distributed configuration. The non linear effects in power amplifiers, and their memoryless modeling.
6. Switches.
The p-i-n diode and the microelectromechanical switches. The single pole single throw (SPST) switch and the single pole double throw (SPDT) switch.
7. Phase shifters.
The switched-line configuration. The reflection phase shifter. The loaded line topology. The distributed configuration.

Bibliography

David Pozar, “Microwave Engineering”, Wiley.
S.K.Koul and B.Bhat, “Microwave and Millimetre-wave Phase Shifters vol II”, Artech House 1991.

## VLSI Circuit and System Design – (block B)

PREREQUISITES:

It is strictly suggested to take the “Digital Electronics” exam before attending this course. You can contact Prof. Luca DI NUNZIO for any doubts regarding the topic.

OBJECTIVES

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

The VLSI CIRCUIT AND SYSTEM DESIGN course aims to teach the basic of combinational and sequential circuits that represent the basic blocks of any modern digital system. In addition, the course will provide the basic concepts of the VHDL language. Moreover, the course aim is to teach the basic notions to study and design a microprocessor. The elements necessary for the analysis of the architecture of microprocessors and their peripherals are provided. The course also covers various types of buses, data synchronization and types of memories.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:

At the end of the course, the student will learn the basic concepts of combinational and sequential circuits that are the basis of any system and the basic concepts of the VHDL language useful for the design of digital systems. Moreover, the student will have acquired the fundamental concepts of microprocessor architecture and analyze all its peripherals.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:

Ability to analyze the characteristics of digital circuits with particular emphasis on timing and power consumption. Moreover, the student will be able to design the architecture of a microprocessor and the interconnections between its peripherals.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS:

The student will understand and the acquired knowledge independently and critically, in order to be able to connect and integrate the various aspects related to the design of digital systems. Moreover, the student will be able to independently analyze the fundamental characteristics of a microprocessor and its peripherals.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS: The student must be able to communicate their knowledge acquired during the course in a clear, correct, and technical language.

LEARNING SKILLS:

Ability to critically approach a digital circuit design problem, know how to manage it, and find implementation solutions using the VHDL language. Moreover, the student will have acquired the ability to independently undertake further in-depth studies on topics related to the course program, and to use the knowledge and methodologies learned to face new problems.

SYLLABUS

(L. DI NUNZIO)
Digital electronics basic concepts
Floating-point and fixed-point numeric representation formats
Combinatorial circuits: encoders, decoders, multiplexers
Sequential circuits: flip flops, latch registers, counters, memories
Introduction to VHDL: entity and architecture, levels of abstraction, HDL design flow, combinatorial and sequential processes, objects in VHDL test bench
(S. SPANÒ)
Central unit
ALU
System registers
System buses
Scheduler
Branching of instructions
Interrupts
Bus synchronization
RAM memories
ROM memories
Flash memories
CAM memories
(V. MELINI)
Introduction to the IC Digital Design Phases
ASIC & FPGA Design flows and their differences
Static Time Analysis, how, why and when to use it
Analysis of the timing paths and delays calculation
Definitions of the timing checks and delay calculations
Set-Up and hold violations and methodologies to resolve them
Metastability
Introduction to the Clock Domains Crossing (CDC) and the main methodologies to deal with it
Introduction to the Reset Domain Crossing (RDC) and the main methodologies to avoid the issue

TEXTS

Notes from lectures. Slides employed for lectures.

INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SYSTEMS
Ercegovac, Milos D.; Lang, Tom?s; Moreno, Jaime H
ISBN 10: 0471527998 / ISBN 13: 9780471527992

Static Timing Analysis for
Nanometer Designs
A Practical Approach
ISBN 978-0-387-93819-6 e-ISBN 978-0-387-93820-2

## Experimental Electronics – (block B-D)

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
The fundamental purpose of this course is to provide students the necessary knowledge concerning the practical aspects of the use of measuring instruments, assembly of circuits, and the limits of the most common components and integrated circuits. It is important to observe, that the objectives of a normal course of electronics are to some extent different from those of this course. In fact, generally the goal is basically the understanding the operation of the various circuits proposed. For the experimental electronics course, on the contrary, the fundamental purpose is the synthesis or the project. In other words, choosing the right components of a circuit so that it behaves in the way you want.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Understanding of the practical aspects necessary for using the most commonly used measuring instruments, basic electronic configurations, and the most used integrated circuits.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Ability to use the introduced measuring instruments, to design and to implement the electronic circuits examined during the course.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS:
Education for an independent evaluation, as it is necessary for verifying, through measurements, the synthesized electronic circuits implemented during the course. Furthermore, the reasoning is stimulated for the identification of all those errors in which the student may incur in phase of synthesis, implementation and measurement.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS:
The communication between the learner and the teacher is stimulated and refined during the course, as there is ample room for questions from students who need to know how to combine the theoretical and practical aspects of the proposed experiments.

LEARNING SKILLS:
The course is based on learning a series of preparatory elements. This requires the learning of a certain number of notions necessary to solve the experiments of the next lesson.

SYLLABUS

General concepts related to the use of measuring instruments present in the laboratory (multimeter, power supply, signal generator, oscilloscope).
Passive filters.
Diode circuits. Synthesis of small-signal amplifiers. Concepts related to the power amplifiers, class A, B and AB.
BJT current sources. Concepts related to sinusoidal oscillators. Structure and operation of operational amplifiers, and their applications. Structure and operation of voltage regulators, and their applications. Structure and operation of timers, and their applications.