Electromagnetic Fields

Electromagnetic Fields
3 YEAR1 semester6 CREDITS
Prof. Cecilia Occhiuzzi2019-20
OCCHIUZZI CECILIA 2020-21
2021-22
Code: 8039513
SSD: ING-INF/02

OBJECTIVES:
This course aims to provide the basic principles and models for the representation of electromagnetic transmission and propagation phenomena up to the description of the most common classes of guiding / radiating elements and of the entire wireless communication link.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Students will have understood the principles and the mathematical representation of transmission, irradiation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic waves. At the end of the course the student: – will know the basic methodologies of problem analysis described by the Maxwell Equations; – will know the solution of Maxwell’s equations in terms of plane waves and the propagation, reflection and refraction modes of the latter; – will know the behavior of transmission lines and will be able to use the Smith diagram; he will know the basic guiding structures and the relative modalities he will be able to characterize the irradiated field at great distance from electromagnetic sources; – will know the descriptive quantities of the behavior of the antennas both in transmission and in reception; –

ABILITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Students will be able to interpret the most common phenomena of electromagnetic propagation in free space and in material means. They will be able to understand qualitatively and quantitatively the phenomena and the peculiar characteristics of radiant and basic guiding structures. Thanks to the use of basic CAD and Matlab type calculation software they will be able to directly analyze the different phenomena covered by the course.

AUTONOMY OF JUDGMENT:
Students will acquire the ability to integrate the knowledge provided with those found autonomously by accessing the scientific literature / datasheet of components. The autonomous and guided development of exercises (also in Matlab / CAD electromagnetic base) will complete the training.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS:
Students will be able to illustrate in a synthetic and analytical way all the topics of the course using equations and schemes. They will communicate quantitatively the resolution of exercises and complex problems, also through basic electromagnetic Matlab / CAD.

LEARNING SKILLS:
Students will have acquired the ability to read and understand scientific texts and datasheets in English for further information on the topics covered by the course and for the resolution of the exercises.

SYLLABUS

1.Review of vector analysis and complex Algebra
2.Transmission lines: theory and techniques
3. Electrodynamics and Time varying fields.
4.Plane waves.
5.Guided waves.
6. Radiation and antennas.

DETAILS:

1.Fields , field operators and Phasors.
Review of vector analysis.
Scalar and vector fields.
Line and surface integrals.
Differential operators: Gradient, Divergence, Curl, Laplacian.
Complex Algebra and Phasor.

2.Transmission lines.
The Lumped-Circuit theory.
Sinusoidal waves on the ideal lossless line.
Characteristic impedance. Power transmitted by a single wave.
Reflection and transmission.
Transmission lines with losses.
Standing wave ratio.
Impedance.
The Smith chart.
Impedance matching techniques.
Practical transmission lines.

3. Electrodynamics and Time varying fields.
Displacement current. The continuity equation.
Faraday’s law.
Boundary conditions for the tangential electric field.
Maxwell’s equations.
Sinusoidal fields.
The skin effect.
Boundary conditions for good conductors.
Electromagnetic waves. The uniform plane wave.
The quasi-static approximation.

4. Plane waves.
Characteristics of plane waves. Polarization of plane waves.
Poynting’s theorem.
Reflection and transmission at normal incidence.
Reflection and transmission at oblique incidence.
Plane waves in lossy media.

5.Guided waves.
TEM waves in transmission lines.
Hollow metal waveguides. TE waves. The TE10 mode. Waveguide losses.
Cavity resonator
Microstrip

6. Radiation and antennas.
Sources of radiation.
Far field parameters
Near field parameters
The elementary dipole. Directivity and gain.
Array basic

Digital Signal Processing

Digital Signal Processing
3 YEAR2 semester6 CREDITS
Prof. Marina Ruggieri2019-20
RUGGIERI MARINA 2020-21
2021-22
Code: 8039514
SSD: ING-INF/03

OBJECTIVES

LEARNING OUTCOMES: The course aims at providing to the students the theoretical and practical tools for the development of design capabilities and implementation awareness of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) systems and applications.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: Students are envisaged to understand the DSP theoretical, design and algorithm elements and to be able to apply them in design exercises.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: Students are envisaged to apply broadly and, if applicable, to personalize the design techniques and algorithm approaches taught during the lessons.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS: Students are envisaged to provide a reasoned description of the design and algorithm techniques and tools, with proper integrations and links.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS: Students are envisaged to describe analytically the theoretical elements and to provide a description of the design techniques and the algorithm steps, also providing eventual examples.

LEARNING SKILLS: Students are envisaged to deal with design tools and manuals. The correlation of topics is important, particularly when design trade-offs are concerned.

SYLLABUS

PART 1- Discrete-time signals and systems; representation in the time domain; sampling process; Discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT); Z-transform; Discrete Time Fourier Series (DTFS).
PART 2 – Processing algorthms: introduction to processing; Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT); finite and long processing; DFT-based Processing; Fast Fourier Transform (FFT); processing with FFT.
PART 3 – Filter Design: introduction to digital filters: FIR and IIR classification; structures, design and implementation of IIR and FIR filters; analysis of finite word length effects; DSP system design and applications; VLAB and applications (Dr. Tommaso Rossi) with design examples and applications of IIR and FIR filters, Matlab-based lab and exercises (optional).

High Performance Electronics

High Performance Electronics
3 YEAR1 semester6 CREDITS
Prof. Giancarlo Bartolucci2019-20
BARTOLUCCI GIANCARLO 2020-21
2021-22
Code: 8037963
SSD: ING-INF/01

Educational objectives

LEARNING OUTCOMES: the main purpose is to provide methods of analysis and design for high frequency components and circuits.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: the student should be able to understand and know the methods of analysis and design studied in the course.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: the student should be able to apply the models of the studied components to the design of high-frequency circuits.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS: in the mathematical model of a component, the student should be able to find by himself the basic assumptions and the corresponding introduced physical approximations.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS: the student should be able to discuss the topics studied in the course with mathematical rigor and using the proper terms.

LEARNING SKILLS: if necessary, the student should be able to significantly and autonomously increase his knowledge of the topics analyzed in the course.

Prerequisites

The analysis methods of the lumped element networks. The most common devices and circuits used in the low frequency analogue electronics. The theory of transmission lines.

Syllabus

  1. Introduction

2.Scattering parameters.
Definition in the general case. The lossless case. The two-port network case.

3.Two-port networks.
The ABCD matrix and its properties for the representation of two-port networks. The relationships between the ABCD parameters and the scattering parameters.

  1. Planar realization of lines.
    The microstrip line. The coplanar line. The most widely used discontinuities
    for these two structures.
  2. Realization of microwave integrated circuits.
    The hybrid integrated circuit configuration. The monolithic integrated circuit configuration.
  3. Three-port networks.
    The general theorem for the three-port networks. The Wilkinson divider.
  4. Four-port networks.
    The branch-line divider. The rat-race divider. The coupled-line structure.
  5. Microwave amplifiers.
    Some linear amplifiers: the balanced configuration and the distributed configuration. The non linear effects in power amplifiers, and their memoryless modeling.
  6. Switches.
    The p-i-n diode and the microelectromechanical switches. The single pole single throw (SPST) switch and the single pole double throw (SPDT) switch.
  7. Phase shifters.
    The switched-line configuration. The reflection phase shifter. The loaded line topology. The distributed configuration.

Bibliography

David Pozar, “Microwave Engineering”, Wiley.
S.K.Koul and B.Bhat, “Microwave and Millimetre-wave Phase Shifters vol II”, Artech House 1991.

Experimental Electronics

Experimental Electronics
3 YEAR2 semester6 CREDITS
Prof. Lucio Scucchia2019-20
SCUCCHIA LUCIO 2020-21
2021-22
Code: 8037959
SSD: ING-INF/01

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
The fundamental purpose of this course is to provide students the necessary knowledge concerning the practical aspects of the use of measuring instruments, assembly of circuits, and the limits of the most common components and integrated circuits. It is important to observe, that the objectives of a normal course of electronics are to some extent different from those of this course. In fact, generally the goal is basically the understanding the operation of the various circuits proposed. For the experimental electronics course, on the contrary, the fundamental purpose is the synthesis or the project. In other words, choosing the right components of a circuit so that it behaves in the way you want.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Understanding of the practical aspects necessary for using the most commonly used measuring instruments, basic electronic configurations, and the most used integrated circuits.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Ability to use the introduced measuring instruments, to design and to implement the electronic circuits examined during the course.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS:
Education for an independent evaluation, as it is necessary for verifying, through measurements, the synthesized electronic circuits implemented during the course. Furthermore, the reasoning is stimulated for the identification of all those errors in which the student may incur in phase of synthesis, implementation and measurement.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS:
The communication between the learner and the teacher is stimulated and refined during the course, as there is ample room for questions from students who need to know how to combine the theoretical and practical aspects of the proposed experiments.

LEARNING SKILLS:
The course is based on learning a series of preparatory elements. This requires the learning of a certain number of notions necessary to solve the experiments of the next lesson.

SYLLABUS

General concepts related to the use of measuring instruments present in the laboratory (multimeter, power supply, signal generator, oscilloscope).
Passive filters.
Diode circuits. Synthesis of small-signal amplifiers. Concepts related to the power amplifiers, class A, B and AB.
BJT current sources. Concepts related to sinusoidal oscillators. Structure and operation of operational amplifiers, and their applications. Structure and operation of voltage regulators, and their applications. Structure and operation of timers, and their applications.

Energy Systems

Energy Systems
3 YEAR1 semester6 CREDITS
Prof. Michele Manno2019-20
MANNO MICHELE 2020-21
Code: 8037964
SSD: ING-IND/09

OBJECTIVES

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
After completing the course, the students should acquire a good knowledge of the fundamental operating principles of energy conversion systems, and they should be able to analyze the layout and evaluate the performance and efficiency of thermal and hydroelectric power plants.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Students are expected to understand the fundamental principles underlying the operation of energy conversion systems.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Students are expected to be able to assess the performance of energy conversion systems.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS:
Students are expected to be able to choose the most suitable energy conversion system and its operating parameters, given a particular application.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS:
Students are expected to be able to describe and illustrate the operating principles of energy conversion systems.

LEARNING SKILLS:
Students are expected to be able to read and fully understand technical literature related to energy conversion systems.

COURSE SYLLABUS

Students will be introduced to the main principles of energy conversion systems, with particular reference to steam and gas turbine power plants, combined cycle power plants,
hydroelectric power generation.

More specifically, the following topics will be addressed:

Introduction

  • Review of fluid properties and equations of state.
  • Analysis of combustion processes.
  • Analysis of energy conversion systems based on 1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics.
  • Thermodynamic cycles: definition of network output and thermal efficiency; external and internal irreversibilities; efficiency factors.

Steam power plants

  • Analysis of ideal and real thermodynamic cycles.
  • Choice of operating parameters.
  • Techniques to improve plant efficiency: steam reheating, regenerative feed heating.
  • Plant layouts, applications.

Gas turbine power plants

  • Analysis of ideal and real thermodynamic cycles.
  • Choice of operating parameters and techniques to improve performance: regenerative heat exchanger, reheaters, intercoolers.
  • Layout of heavy-duty and aeroderivative turbines, applications.

Combined cycle power plants

  • Analysis of “topping” (gas turbine) and “bottoming” sections, definition of recovery efficiency.
  • Thermodynamic optimization of bottoming sections with variable temperature heat input.
  • Plant layout, applications.

Hydroelectric power generation

  • Hydraulic turbines: classification, operating parameters, performance characteristics.
  • Hydroelectric plant classification and layouts, applications.

Fluid Machinery

Fluid Machinery
3 YEAR1 semester6 CREDITS
Prof. Vincenzo Mulone e
Roberto Verzicco
2019-20
VERZICCO ROBERTO
MULONE VINCENZO
2020-21
Code: 8037967
SSD: ING-IND/08

LEARNING OUTCOMES: This course aims at providing the fundamentals of fluid dynamics applied to fluid machines. More in detail, it deals with the fluid dynamics equations applied to energy-consuming and energy-producing machines, characterized by both axial and radial flows. It also deals with the understanding of systems connected to fluid machines.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: The student will be able to develop simple but useful calculations of fluid machines in terms of flow, work and power, along with solving practical problems of interest. The student will also learn the basics of the control of fluid machines with respect to the flow rate, work exchanged and power output or input The knowledge developed will help the student for both the design of fluid machines and of the systems connected to the machines.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: The student will apply the knowledge and understanding developed to the analysis of practical problems. This would imply critical knowledge in terms of size and power output/input; the same thing will be done for the systems connected to the machine.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS: The student will have to prove his critical awareness with respect to the simplifying assumptions useful to describe and calculate fluid machines, as well as his critical awareness of the correct order of magnitude of performance parameters while dealing or designing fluid machines.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS: The student will prove, mostly during the oral test, his capacity of describing the operation and functioning of fluid machines, convening of the knowledge developed.

LEARNING SKILLS: The student will get familiar with the schematization of practical problems, mostly during the development of his skills for the written test. This mainly concerns fluid machines (e.g. wind turbines, steam turbines, hydraulic turbines, hydraulic pumps, gas compressors, etc) and the systems connected to the machines (e.g. hydraulic power plants, pumping systems, air distribution systems, etc).

DETAILED SYLLABUS  

Introduction 

Classification of machines. Turbines, compressors, volumetric, rotary machines and their applications to industrial practical cases. Analysis of performance: power, specific work, efficiency.

Basics of fluid mechanics 

Material and spatial description of the flow field. Translation, deformation and rotation. Reynolds’ transport theorem. Principles of conservation and balance (mass, momentum, energy, entropy) in differential form. Mass, momentum, thermal and mechanical energy in stationary and rotating frames of reference. 

Basics of fluid mechanics applied to turbomachinery 

Integral balances in turbomachines (mass, momentum, moment of momentum, energy) and basic applications. 
Gas dynamics equations, speed of sound, Mach number. Applications to nozzles in supersonic conditions, normal shock waves. 

Velocity diagrams coupled to stator and rotor blades for energy producing and consuming machines. Moment of Momentum balance. Energy transfer and different expressions of the Euler work. Trothalpy, degree of reaction, utilization for a turbine. 

Applications 

Scaling and similitude: dimensionless parameters, specific speed and diameter, Cordier curve. Scaling and similitude for compressible flow machines. 

Axial turbines: stage analysis, flow and loading coefficients, reaction ratio, special cases of 0 and 0.5 reaction ratio designs. Off-design operation and performance maps. 

Axial compressors: stage analysis, flow and loading coefficients, reaction ratio. De Haller design criterion and its effect on blade design. Off-design operation and performance maps. 

Centrifugal compressors: analysis of velocity diagrams, effect of blade shape on performance maps, stability and efficiency. Slip factor. Vaneless and vaned diffuser. Flow control (variable speed, IGV and throttling). 

Centrifugal pumps operation into systems: definition of head and volumetric flow rate. Head-flow rate performance map and effects on velocity diagrams, blade design and efficiency. System head curves for simple and multi-branched open-ended and closed-circuit systems. Friction factor and expression of dimensional friction losses. Flow control by variable speed and throttling.  

Cavitation: physical description; effects of system design on cavitation, Net Positive Suction Head, suction specific speed.

TEXTBOOKS AND MATERIAL 

S. Korpela. Principles of Turbomachinery, Wiley 2019. 

Karassik et al., Pump handbook, McGraw Hill. 

Powerpoint slides and videos are available on the MS-team website. 

Engineering Economics

Engineering Economics
1 YEAR1 semester6 CFU
Prof.ssa Elisa Battistoni 2019-20
BATTISTONI ELISA 2020-21
Code: 8037946
SSD: ING-IND/35

OBJECTIVES

LEARNING OUTCOMES
The aim of the course is to provide students with basic knowledge about microeconomic models (demand and supply functions, market structures, consumers and producers’ choices, perfectly competitive markets and monopolistic markets), as well as about investment analysis (comparison and choice between investment alternatives, basing on the most used parameters like Present Worth, Internal Rate of Return and payback period).

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
Knowledge and understanding of the topics of the course will be developed mostly through active participation to didactic activities during classes.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
The ability of applying knowledge and understandings is developed by encouraging active participation of students to classes, by questioning students during classes, by flipped classroom situations and by facilitating educational conversations.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS
The ability of making judgments on the topics of the course will be developed through theoretical and practical classes and by involving students in analysing the results obtained in simulations and exercises.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Communication skills, acquired knowledge and ability to make judgments on the topic of the course will be tested through the exam. During exams, students will face theoretical as well as practical questions.

LEARNING SKILLS:
Learning skills will be sustained by the teacher with the possibility of having appointments in which students can ask questions to solve doubts – both theoretical and practical – coming from individual study.

COURSE SYLLABUS

Microeconomics
• use of microeconomic theory; positive and normative economic analysis; why to study microeconomics; what is a market
• market mechanism; demand and supply curves; elasticity, both in the short and in the long run
• consumer’s preferences, utility function, budget line and consumer’s optimal choice
• production function, production isoquant, production in the short and in the long run
• cost structures in the short and in the long run and their determinants, optimal production choice
• profit maximization, marginal revenues and marginal costs, conditions for a perfectly competitive market
• average and marginal revenues in a monopolistic market, production decision making in a monopolistic market

Investment analysis
• time value for money, interest and interest rate, simple and compound interests
• nominal and effective interest rates
• economic equivalence and financial factors
• difference between investments and loans, investment projects, investment alternatives
• the “not to invest” alternative and the MARR
• choice between investment alternatives: PW, AE, FW, IRR, payback period

Lecture notes and practical classes are integral part of the program, as well as elements coming from discussions during classes.
Please note that lecture notes do not cover all the program, but are meant to integrate and complete what is explained on suggested textbooks.